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I can't understand why in this type of sentence an author doesn't use the article if we are talking about definite nouns ( head noun which modified by prepositional phrase). Portraits why without a definite article? here example The boy draw portraits of people why waiting for an aeroplane at the

Bogdan Bezfamilny

Hello, my apologies for having overlooked this question of yours that you asked so long ago. First, I believe you mean "while" and not "why" in your sentence and also either "draws," present tense or "drew," the irregular past tense of "draw." Plus I suspect the last word was omitted, that is, I believe your whole sentence is something like "The boy drew portraits of people why waiting for an aeroplane at the airport."

As to your specific question, the reason we don’t have the definite article "the" before the noun portraits is (1) it’s the first mention of the noun and (2) in the case of (1), for plural countable nouns like "portraits" from "portrait" we don’t use any article at all (though we could use "some" here, but again, no article is needed). Compare, for example, "The boy drew a portrait" where we must use the indefinite article "a" since "portrait" is singular, not plural.

So it is true that the noun "portraits" in your sentence is post-modified by a prepositional phrase ("of people") which normally requires the preceding noun to be definite (i.e., "the portraits" instead of just "portraits"), but the larger context of the sentence is what overrules this principle here, namely again that this is presumably the first mention of these portraits the boy is or was drawing, so we signal that by having no article before portraits; "The boy drew the portraits of people…," by contrast, would imply that the portraits have already been introduced and mentioned in the discourse, i.e., the conversation or the writing.

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Thanks for helping me a lot 😍😍😍

Menna Basha

You are welcome!

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Sorry that i nerves you, but you are the one who can help me in this to tuesday, i have only to do this 1 english exam and i am positive in every subject) so please help meeee you are the teacher of the teachers

Rajana

Vielen Dank, Rajana. I would be glad to try to help you, but I have some questions first. In your first message, you wrote that you need to "write my text," but then you refer to a "test" on Tuesday; also in, this message I'm replying to here, you mention "1 english exam." So will you need to write those two passages, i.e., about a partner and where you have lived, during the period of your exam/test on Tuesday or do you have to bring the two completed written passages with you *before* you do Tuesday's test/exam?

Also, in your message about the first question you say must "use this words in this text: (looks, likes, dislikes, hobbys, education, character, social status, job...)." O.K., what you have in the parentheses look more like topics than specific English words you must use; were you give a list of English vocabulary items that relate to these topics?

Similarly, for the second question you include the direction "How are the people, the food, the shops, transportation, culture, public, art, politics?" So once again I'm assuming these are the general aspects of the topic you must write about, and once more I'm curious if you've been given vocabulary to help you write about these things.

Please contact me at my tutoring site http://mccorduck.cc/chegg which is where I usually help students with writing. Ich spreche ein bisschen Deutsch, so I hope I'll be able to give you the help you need.

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2 minutes of silence for those ________?👻

Zᴜɴᴀɪʀ ᴋʜoᴋʜᴀʀ

Hi, are you asking me what kind of English word or phrase would be appropriate to use in the blank?

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Really missed you advice 😍😍😍😍😊😊 The next exam is History of English literature. OMG .....

Menna Basha

Hello Menna, good to hear from you gain. "OMG" is right; I know a little about the history of English literature, especially the Old and Middle English periods, but I'm not a literature specialist, sorry. Good luck with your next exam, though.

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Is the " an integrated approach and teaching vocabulary to English learners " a general topic , for writing essay ?

Najla

O.K., because you have "and" between "an integrated approach" and "teaching vocabulary to English learners," you list two *very* general, broad topics, both of which by themselves are much too general, I think, for a single essay.

Maybe you meant to write "an integrated approach to teaching vocabulary to English learners" or "an integrated approach for teaching vocabulary to English learners," using either the preposition "to" or the preposition "for" to head the prepositional-phrase complement of "approach." Either choice would be a good way to limit your topic to make it less general and more appropriate for a single essay, and also grammatically either preposition fits because the next word, "teaching," is already in the gerund form of the verb "teach" which is required after prepositions.

There is a slight difference in the meanings of "approach to teaching" and "approach for teaching," however. If you use "to," the implication is that you may not yet have decided on how to deploy the approach yet but may be considering the approach more theoretically, whereas "approach for teaching" implies that you have decided on a definite approach and will describe it in detail in your essay. So choose which preposition to use based on what your own essay is really about.

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Thanks. .. I answered like that " my mother-in-law's cooking " in my writing Exam yesterday. .. It's the correct answer. ... You really made my day .😍😁😁... Thanks 🎉🎉🎊🎊✌😍😍✔

Menna Basha

I am very glad to hear that! Congratulations on getting the answer correct on your exam.

Now, of course, I will expect appropriate compensation. You may wire me a generous contribution in untraceable Bitcoin. ;) ☺

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My ....... (mother-in-law) cooking. Put mother-in-law in a genetic case

Menna Basha

I believe by "genetic" you mean "genitive," which is the English case for showing possession (indeed, this is also called the "the possessive case" or just "the possessive").

The possessive of "mother-in-law" is " mother-in-law's ," with the " 's ," which is the usual case marker of the genitive in English, appended to "law" and not "mother" since even though the referent of the compound noun "mother-in-law" is a human female who is the mother of one's spouse and not the abstract noun "law," the components of this compound happen to be arranged such that "law" is the last or rightmost element of the stem and thus is the recipient of any inflectional suffixes (cf. plural "mother-in-laws" and plural genitive " mother-in-laws' ," alongside "mother's" and " mothers' ").

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How to form Adverbial phrase ... For Example " Edward dances occasionally" Rewrite by using adverbial phrase

Menna Basha

O.K., as I discussed in my answer to your "misery" question (http://ask.fm/EnglishConsulting/answers/139402991613), I'll consider "adverbial phrase" to be a functional definition, that is, referring to any phrase that be used in the way adverbs are normally used, principally to indicate manner, time or place. That said, the closest equivalent to "Edward dances occasionally" using a phrase rather than the adverb "occasionally" that I can think of is "Edward dances on occasion."

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Thank you so much, if it possible could you give me some website of articals or essays that may help me to write mine pleas🙏🏾

Najla

Carter, R., and M. McCarthy (1988). _Vocabulary and Language Teaching_. London: Longman.
Coady, J. and T. Huckin, eds. (1997). Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: A Rationale for Pedagogy_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, P., ed. (1994). _New Ways in Teaching Vocabulary_. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

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I have to write an essay about specific topic of the importance of teaching vocabulary to EL, could you help me to find one or just give me an examples ?

Najla

Sure, well first, I'll make the assumption that by "EL" you mean "English learners." And it really goes without saying that teaching vocabulary is important in learning any second language as the lexicon is one of the two main components of any language along with the grammatical system. Opinions differ on how best to teach vocabulary, some favoring a traditional, rote-memorization approach largely separated from actual communicative context, while others maintain that the only effective way to teach vocabulary is the same way that people learn the vocabulary of their first language, through real-world interaction. Proponents of the latter approach, however, tend to overlook some of the special situations and needs of second-language learners, such that perhaps an integrated approach is best, i.e., one where explicit instruction in vocabulary items is often if not absolutely necessary then at minimum highly desirable, without losing sight of the essential utility of any human language and thus the ideal goal of second-language learning and instruction, to foster learners' ability to communicate in the real world, incorporating both expressing one's own thoughts as well as comprehending the language of others in appropriate contexts.

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Please ,ask me questions on Ask now to attach a photo have some answers. I want you revise it for me Because my exams will begin after 6 days on 25th December

Menna Basha

I'm sorry, I don't understand what you're asking.

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"These people live in misary" Rewrite this sentence using adverbial phrase.

Menna Basha

All right, first, I'm guessing that you meant "misery" instead of "misary," which I don't believe is a word in English. And technically even prepositional phrases (i.e., ones where a preposition like "in," which governs a noun phrase, is the head of the phrase) can function as adverbials in that these can supply information typically provided by words that are morphologically adverbs. For example, sentences can contain adverbials of time in the form of adverbs (as in "These people work quickly") or prepositional phrases (as in "These people work in the morning") and adverbials of manner also as adverbs ("These people work diligently") or as prepositional phrases ("These people work with passion").

Now, there is an adjective "miserable" corresponding to "misery," so we could say "These people live miserably," i.e., using the regular adverb form of this adjective. The problem is that there isn't a strict semantic equivalence between "misery" and "miserable"; that is, "misery" could refer to a state of extreme emotional unhappiness, but it could also refer to a condition of poverty or other dire physical want, which is the meaning I suspect your example was meant to convey (again, if I'm right about your intending this and not "misary"). But normally in English "miserable" and "miserably" are about emotional states only, with no strong implication that the referents are materially poor. That is, to say that "They live miserably" is more likely a comment on these people's attitudes and dispositions in their daily lives, feelings that *might* be occasioned primarily by difficult economic circumstances, but not necessarily so.

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What's meant by "nominative" in grammar?

Menna Basha

"Nominative" generally refers to the case of the grammatical subject in most languages, often--but not necessarily--pertaining to the agent or "doer" of the action of the main verb. In some languages, the nominative case has specific inflection, as in Latin "amicus videt amicum" '(the) friend sees (a) friend' where the nominative ending "-us" marks the first instance of the noun "amic-" as the grammatical subject of the sentence whose verb is "videt" 'sees', in contrast to the accusative case ending "-um" which marks the second occurrence as the direct object of the verb. (And because languages like Latin rely so heavily on inflection to mark sentence roles, word order is much freer, i.e., one could also convey the same meaning '(the) friend sees (a) friend' by various permutations of "amicus videt amicum," e.g. "amicus amicum videt," "amicum amicus videt" and "videt amicum amicus.")

In other languages, however, like English, the nominative case/role is not specifically marked but is more a functional designation. Thus in "The friend sees his friend," both the instances of "friend," i.e., as the heads of the noun phrases "the friend" and "his friend," respectively, are identical morphologically and it is only the word order that tells us that the first "friend" is the subject or is used in the (really nonexistent) "nominative case" and the second, which comes after the transitive main verb, is in the accusative or "objective" case. (One exception to the general principle that English has no case inflection is with personal pronouns. Take for example "He sees him" where "He," as the grammatical subject, obligatorily shows "nominative" case, whereas "him," as the direct object, is in the objective/accusative case, which in fact consists here of the use of a morphologically distinct or "suppletive" form; compare also the nominative/objective pairs "I"/"me," "she"/"her," "we"/"us" and "they"/"them," which also evince suppletion, i.e., one can hardly make the argument that there is a distinct "accusative" inflection in English.)

Finally, it should be noted that the so-called "nominative" case may be used for other sentence elements besides the grammatical subject. With linking verbs, for example, the element coming after the verb is usually described as the subject complement in that it is normally co-referential with the subject, e.g., "I am his friend" where "his friend," unlike in the example in the previous paragraph, is here said to be in the "predicative nominative." This analysis had led many authorities to insist that in a sentence like "It is me," the objective "me" is "incorrectly" used and should be replaced by the nominative "I," but this contradicts centuries of actual English usage.

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Hi In making possession nouns With old Greek name ,faustus, which one from the following is correct (faustus's bag / faustus' bag / faustus bag ) please answer it ,if we consider faustus is an old Greek name .

Menna Basha

Actually, I would think that "Faustus" looks more like a Latin/Roman name, but that's not really too important here. Of your three choices, "Faustus bag," the one without any apostrophe at all, would definitely be incorrect for indicating possession by Faustus (but not necessarily always incorrect, e.g., if there were a line of bags known by the trade name "Faustus," then "Faustus bag" would be correct on the reading of "Faustus" as a proper noun functioning as an adjective premodifying the noun "bag").

Of your two remaining choices, with the apostrophe either preceding the possessive (a.k.a. genitive) inflection "s" ("Faustus's bag") or following the final "s" of "Faustus" ("Faustus' bag"), both ways are generally regarded as acceptable in Standard Written English. The choice really depends on how one pronounces the possessive form of "Faustus." After nouns ending in a sibilant like [s], many English speakers will chose to insert an unstressed vowel, sounding like "ih" or "uh," before the possessive inflection, thus changing the two-syllable "Faustus" into the three-syllable "fow-stuhs-sihz." If this is the pronunciation, then "Faustus's" is the preferred way to write this.

However, many other English speakers prefer not to add "s" to nouns ending in a sibilant at all to make the possessive (or plural) form, especially, as in the case of "Faustus," if such nouns are names (i.e., proper nouns). In this case, "Faustus' " would be the possessive form, and it would be pronounced identically to the singular "Faustus." However, other English speakers will still pronounce " Faustus' " as "fow-stuh-sihz," i.e., as though the possessive inflection were written as " 's "; there is considerable variation in actual usage.

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You made my day. Thanks for helping. 😊😊😀

Menna Basha

You're very welcome! I'm glad I was able to help you. And yes, I believe a little grammar can make anyone's day (I probably need to get out more ;) ).

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Yes , this is the rule that l wanna simplify it ,please

Menna Basha

O.K., thank you for the clarification. All right, the "the + COMPARATIVE . . . the + COMPARATIVE" construction in English expresses proportionality, that is, "the A . . . the B" indicates that the more A increases, improves, accelerates etc. a proportional effect will be true on B. So in "The more I visit Paris, the more I love it" the implication is that if I visit Paris X times, my love for Paris will be greater by X times (though it may not be possible to devise an exact proportion or ratio that is true for all such sentences containing this construction). It should also be noted that by "COMPARATIVE" we don't just mean higher-degree comparison as expressed by "more" but also also lower-degree comparison as expressed by "less." That is, it is quite possible to say "The less I practice, the less skilled I become." We can even mix higher- and lower-degree comparison in this construction, i.e., "The more I talk to him, the less I like him."

As for the grammar of this construction, it should be noted that the "the + COMPARATIVE . . . the + COMPARATIVE" construction is syntactically a correlative, that is, it links together elements of a phrase or a sentence into a single unit, elements which cannot be omitted without changing the meaning and/or resulting in an ungrammatical construction. Other types of correlatives in English are "either . . . or" as in "Either John or Mary will pay him" and "as . . . as" as in "as corrupt as the leadership has become."

But the syntax of "the + COMPARATIVE . . . the + COMPARATIVE" construction is rather unusual in that it works by extracting some element of a clause (which is often not expressed explicitly but merely understood as in the English proverb "The more, the merrier"), putting it into the comparative form, i.e., using either the comparative inflection "-er" or putting "more" before it for adjectives and adverbs, or using just "more" for nouns or noun phrases or verbs (or using "less" in all these cases for lower-degree comparison) and then "fronting" it or putting it at the beginning of the clause preceded by "the." The range of sentence elements that be put into the comparative and fronted in this manner is wide, and here are some examples:
--adjectives as subject complements: "The more embarrassed she becomes, the redder her face gets." (cf. "She becomes embarrassed" and "Her face gets red")
--nouns as direct objects: "The more gold he finds, the more treasure he seeks." (cf. "He finds gold" and "He seeks treasure")
--adverbials: "The less off the grid I live, the more I appreciate technology" (cf. "I live off the grid" and "I appreciate technology much")

I hope this helps you in some way. Thank you for asking me your question through Ask.fm.

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I mean (the more the more)grammatical rule

Menna Basha

Oh, so something like "The more he talks, the more upset I become," or "The less she talks, the better"?

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Can you help me to understand the rule of (comparative in parallel increases or decreases) ?

Menna Basha

Hi, I'm sorry, but I don't understand your question. What is "the rule of (comparative in parallel increases or decreases)"?

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hello how can i study online to pass in tofel exam please help me

Hi, I can help you prepare to take the TOEFL; I've helped other students online who wanted to pass the TOEFL and also the IELTS. I offer online lessons through Chegg and other learning systems including Skype; you can contact me at http://mccorduck.cc/Chegg or at http://Grammar.Consulting.

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hello.^^ can i ask you a question (?).. is this sentence right? "they no coming to the party this evening."? pls help and thank you :)

Halid_Ibn_Walid

Hi, thank you for asking me your question. Unfortunately your sentence "they no coming to the party this evening" does not comply fully with the rules of Standard Written English, one reason being that as a complete sentence it should begin with a capital letter, i.e., the "t" of "they" should be upper case "T."

But a much more important reason that your sentence is not "correct" or "grammatical" is it does not follow the rules for negating a declarative (or "normal" or "unmarked") sentence in English, which are notoriously complicated and unusual for non-native speakers to learn. Specifically, unlike many other languages we generally cannot negate a declarative sentence simply by adding a negative particle like "no" directly before the verb as your sentence does, but instead before adding "not," the negative particle we in fact use for sentence negation, we usually must introduce a form of "do"--and transfer to it the appropriate tense from the main verb of the declarative sentence--and then put "not" between the new auxiliary verb "do" and the main verb (as we do with other auxiliaries in English, e.g., "They should not come" and "They will not come"). Thus, the "correct" negation of "They come" is "They do not come," or more informally "They don't come."

A secondary grammatical issue is that in your original sentence you have as the main verb the present participle "coming," but in English this does not count as a "conjugated" or "finite" verb, meaning that it requires an auxiliary, in this case a form of "be" to form what is known as the present progressive (or "present continuous") aspect. In other words, the correct affirmative version of your sentence would begin "They are coming . . ." and especially in the spoken language either "are" or "not" is contracted with another element of the sentence, hence in the negative version one would be most likely to hear either "They're not coming" or "They aren't coming" instead of "They are not coming," though the last is perfectly acceptable, if not preferred, in written English.

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is a year enough to speak english fluent?

Safwat Gamal

That really depends on where and how you learn English, or really any second language. In some high-intensity environments, where you are exposed to and use only English during all or nearly all of your waking hours, you may find that after a year or even less time you will have achieved a high degree of fluency, or at least a level of fluency that meets your needs and/or is personally satisfying. But that is certainly not guaranteed and depends on a number of factors, such as your own personal motivation and aptitude for learning a second language and the specifics of whatever environment you find yourself in; that is, the environment may be conducive to learning in general and acquiring a second language specifically, or it may not be for various reasons.

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how i learn english faster?

Safwat Gamal

If you mean "How can I learn English faster?" I believe the keys are to expose yourself to as much as English as possible, i.e., seek out environments and situations that are meaningful to you in which English is the only or dominant language, and also be receptive and participatory in those environments.

But at the same time it is important to be patient and realistic, that is, to accept that despite how hard you try you probably never will understand *everything* that you hear nor be able to express all of your thoughts in perfect English--it is simply the reality of learning any second language. Yet don't give up; your progress will probably be slow, no doubt slower than you'd like, but you will progress, gradually and inevitably, if you persist.

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how to decribe a promotion sale /

Andy Huo

You may be asking me one of two different questions here. If you're asking about the term itself, I think in English we usually call it a "promotional sale" rather than a "promotion sale." If you want to know how to describe the sale itself, that really depends on what product or service the sale is on, what exactly the promotion is and to whom the product or service and the promotion are being targeted, so without any information about these matters I'm unable to give you specific advice, sorry.

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